Country Profile


In 1770, Captain James Cook arrived in the east coast of Australia and claimed the whole of Eastern Australia for Britain. By 1829, with the creation of the colony of Western Australia, all of Australia was claimed as British Territory. Six self-governing colonies were created in the late 18th and 19th centuries, after which they were federated to become the Commonwealth of Australia in 1901.


Australia is a beautiful country with a wide range of scenic and leisure opportunities. Because of its unique and varied geography, it is an archaeologist’s delight, with landforms dating back millions of years. It is the world’s smallest continent and 6th largest by area. A stable, parliamentary democratic sovereign nation, it has one of the most urbanized & culturally diverse societies in the world, with over 47% of the population being born outside Australia or at least having one parent born outside of Australia. It is the only nation to govern an entire continent. The OECD Better Life Index rates Australia 9.3 out of 10 for a safe environment.

With 10% of the world’s biodiversity & many native plants and animals that are not to be found anywhere else on earth, and the largest number of UNESCO world heritage sites (19) in any country, Australia provides a breathtakingly beautiful and healthy environment and a very high quality of life, making it the preferred destination for millions of permanent migrants, tourists and students alike. It’s cities (such as Melbourne, Adelaide, Sydney, Brisbane and Perth) have constantly been ranked amongst the world’s most livable cities.


Australia is one of the most culturally diverse countries in the world, with migrants from over 140 countries and 25% of Australians being born overseas. 90% of the population is primarily located on the periphery, with the highest concentration of people residing in the east & south-east of Australia. Another population center is located in & around Perth in the west. The ‘interior’ or ‘outback’ is very sparsely populated. It has one of the lowest population densities in the world at 3.2 persons per sq. km.

“G’day mate” is the universal Australianism. It is a phrase that is so much more than just a greeting. The word ‘mate’ used so indiscriminately is also one of the most significant in Australian culture. Anyone can be a mate, but only Aussies understand the true meaning & value of mateship, an idea & a cultural touchstone that is more meaningful to them than the universal concept of friendship. Mateship symbolizes everything that it means to be Australian – open minded & welcoming to strangers, fiercely loyal to your friends, generous to those in need and committed to the collective.


Australia is a continent that experiences a variety of climates due to its size. It has a relatively warm climate, with summer tending to be hotter and more humid in North and winters usually colder in the South. Overall, Australian cities tend to have mild climates in comparison to other major cities of the world.

Below are the average temperatures of Australia’s capital cities during different periods of the year:

January July
Australian City Max (°C) Min (°C) Max (°C) Min (°C)
Adelaide (SA) 28.7 16.8 15.2 7.4
Brisbane (Qld) 29.2 21.2 20.6 9.5
Canberra (ACT) 27.7 13.3 11.5 -0.1
Darwin (NT) 31.8 24.8 30.7 19.4
Hobart (Tas) 21.8 12.5 12.2 4.7
Melbourne (Vic) 25.8 15.4 13.9 6.8
Perth (WA) 31.9 17.2 17.9 8.4
Sydney (NSW) 26.1 19.4 17.2 8.6

Health System

The Australian Health Care System is one of the best in the world. It consistently ranks in the best performing group of countries for healthy life expectancy and health expenditure per person.

Australia has both a thriving private healthcare sector and a universal public healthcare system called MEDICARE. Together they ensure quality healthcare and choice for all Australian citizens.

The public health care system comprises of two schemes:

  • Medicare
  • Pharmaceuticals Benefits Scheme

These schemes are 70% funded by the federal government, with the balance being funded by the state or territory governments. Medicare ensures that all Australian citizens and permanent resident visa holders have access to quality healthcare at little or no cost.A person can choose to only access MEDICARE or a combination of Medicare and private health insurance cover.

The level of health assessment required by a prospective visa applicant will depend on the following factors:

  • The applicant’s age
  • The applicant’s proposed length of stay in Australia
  • The applicant’s country of passport in order to assess the level of risk associated with certain diseases.
  • The applicant’s intended activities in Australia
  • The applicant’s medical history

Australian Migration System

Unlike many other countries, the Australian Migration System is governed by legislation by rather than government policy. To be granted a visa, a person must meet the requirements of that visa as laid out by the Migration Act 1958 and Migration Regulations 1994. Both the Act and the Regulations are complex and subject to frequent change.

In our almost 20 years of providing consulting services for Australian Migration, the promoters of Migratesmart have made one significant observation – that of the Department website being used as the primary source of providing immigration advice to prospective clients by many consultants. Prospective applicants must note that the Department website is useful in that it contains a great deal of explanatory material about visas, however it does not distinguish between a legislative investment (law) and formal policy. For this reason, it should never be used as the primary source of information when providing advice to clients or by clients in determining their visa eligibility & requirements.

Also read our latest updates :
Alan Tudge MP provides current updates on international & domestic issues related to the pandemic
World Travel Outlook – September 2020
Australian Immigration & Covid-19
CEDA says – “Migration should be central to Australia’s post-Covid recovery”