Country Profile

Turkey is a democratic, secular nation offering a high quality of life. Its strategic geographical location enables it to act as a bridge between Europe & Asia. While most of Turkey is in Asia, a tiny remainder lies in the Southeastern part of Europe.

The modern Republic of Turkey was founded in 1923 after the collapse of the Ottoman Empire. Today, despite it being a predominantly Muslim country, Turkey is officially a secular nation with no declared state religion, with most Turks subscribing to a liberal form of Islam. It is a democratic & social state governed by the rule of law. An interesting blend of the East & West, Turkey represents both the modern & ancient and has a rich variety of cultures & traditions.

Turkey is famous for the Blue Mosque, the New Mosque, the Hagia Sophia (now a mosque again), the Topkapi Palace in Istanbul, the Bosporus Bridge, the Galata Bridge in Istanbul, the Grand Bazaar in Istanbul, Döner kebab, İskender kebap, Turkish coffee and tea, Tulips, Turkish carpets, the Turkish bath (hammam), whirling dervishes (Sufi dance moves), the beaches of Incekum, Ölüdeniz (Blue Lagoon), Kaputas, the amazing travertine terraces of Pamukkale; the cave houses of Cappadocia, Mount Ararat, the resting place of Noah’s Ark, Troy – the setting of the Trojan War, and the Temple of Artemis in Ephesus (one of the seven wonders of the world).

Key Facts

  • Also Known as the Republic of Turkey
  • Government is a Unitary Presidential Constitutional Republic
  • Capital: Ankara
  • Main cities: Istanbul (largest city & seaport), Izmir, Antalya, Bodrum, Bursa, Gaziantep & Adana
  • Shares borders with Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Iran, Iraq, Syria, Greece & Bulgaria. Has a bigger land area than any European country.
  • Population: Approx. 85 million (2021 estimate)
  • Religion: Predominantly Muslim
  • Official Language: Turkish, with Kurdish also commonly spoken
  • Climate: Mediterranean climate with plenty of sunshine, mild temperatures & a limited amount of rainfall.
  • Health: Healthcare in Turkey consists of both public & private health services. Turkey has a “Universal Health System”, wherein all residents registered with the Social Security Institution (SGK) can receive medical treatment free of charge in hospitals contracted to the SGK. There is also a substantial medical tourism business in Turkey.
  • Education: Under the Turkish Education System, everyone has the right to receive an education. Education is compulsory from the ages of 6 to 14 and free in state schools.
  • Legal System: Civil Law System based on various European legal systems, notably the swiss civil code
  • Economy: Being the world’s 16th-largest economy, Turkey’s robust & diversified economy offers lucrative opportunities in many sectors. Its sizeable domestic market & surrounding regional markets allow it access to over 1 billion consumers. Turkey’s liberal investment climate, strong & independent legal system, and young, well-educated & cost-competitive labor force have been predominant reasons for it attracting substantial investments from around the world.
  • Main Industries: Textiles, Food Processing, Automobiles, Electronics, tourism, mining, coal, chromite, copper, steel, petroleum, construction, lumber & paper
  • Currency: Turkish Lira (TRY)
  • Main Airport: Istanbul International Airport
  • Time Zone: GMT+ 3 hours
  • Calling Code: +90
  • Member of the United Nations (UN) and NATO


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